List of Cannabinoids

List Of Cannabinoids: The 8 Cannabinoids To Know About And Their Benefits

Cannabinoids are chemical compounds found in the body and in marijuana and hemp plants. Although there are over 100 known cannabinoids that have been discovered, there are only eight that have had considerable study and are verified in their therapeutic effects.

List Of Cannabinoids: The Highlights

  • Cannabinoids are a large group of varying chemical compounds that are able to aid the body in maintaining homeostasis as well as give the body immense therapeutic relief from various health ailments.
  • There are two types of cannabinoids found in nature: endocannabinoids that are produced by the body and phytocannabinoids, which are found in marijuana and hemp plants.
  • Although there are over 100 discovered cannabinoids, only a handful have been heavily studied and their therapeutic potential verified.
  • There are eight cannabinoids that have been studied well enough to discuss their medicinal potential: Cannabigerol (CBC), tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), Cannabichromene (CBC), Cannabigerivarin (CBGV), tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), Cannabidivarin (CBDV), and Cannabichromenvarin (CBCV).
  • Although there is a vast list of what all cannabinoids are capable of treating, the main three benefits that have been heavily studied and verified is their ability to improve sleep disorders, anxiety, and chronic pain.

What Are Cannabinoids?

Cannabinoids are therapeutic chemical compounds that are found both outside the body as well as within.

Endogenous cannabinoids, or endocannabinoids, are produced by the body to aid in the body’s inherent need for homeostasis. It does this through the body’s endocannabinoid system, acting as cannabinoid receptor agonists.

Plant cannabinoids, or phytocannabinoids, are found within two different cannabis strains: the Cannabis Sativa marijuana plant and the hemp plant.

These phytocannabinoids have been proven to have medicinal effects on the body. This is why medical marijuana has gotten so much publicity and gained in popularity over the past few years.

So far, over 100 cannabinoids have been found within the cannabis plant. However, only a handful of them that have been studied.

Scientists and doctors examine the cannabis leaves, look through a microscope and monitor

This is due to two facts:

  1. There must be enough of a certain cannabinoid found within the marijuana plant in order to adequately study it.
  2. These adequate levels of certain cannabinoids are potent enough to have therapeutic effects on the body that can help relieve a multitude of bodily ailments.

The therapeutic effects of cannabis stemming from cannabinoid action cannot initially be accessed when first extracted from the cannabis plant. This is because they are in their original acid form.

It is not until the cannabis extract is heated that the cannabinoids are activated and turn into the neutral powerhouses that can then be an effective treatment for many types of ailments. This process is known as decarboxylation.

Once they are activated and turned into cannabinoid compounds, they can then effectively influence the endocannabinoid system for symptom relief and create a more balanced system in the body.

These compounds do this by interacting with the cannabinoid receptors that are already contained within the nervous system and brain of the human body.

The most common types of cannabinoids that are able to perform therapeutic and restorative effects for the body are as follows:

  • THC
  • CBD
  • CBG
  • CBC
  • CBGV
  • THCV
  • CBDV
  • CBCV

These different cannabinoid compounds are explained in more detail below.

List of Cannabinoids and their effects

List Of Cannabinoids And Their Effects

As mentioned above, cannabinoids in cannabis are made from the original cannabinoid acids utilizing heat. Below is a list of cannabinoids and their unique roles in the endocannabinoid system:

THC(A)

The decarboxylated, active version of THCA (tetrahydrocannabinolic acid) is THC or tetrahydrocannabinol. These compounds are responsible for the famous marijuana high.

The reason for this psychoactive high is because THC interacts with the brain’s CB1 receptors, which causes a dopamine release. If taken in strong enough doses, THC can potentially cause powerful dopamine surges, which can sometimes lead to such a strong psychoactive high that it can cause anxiety or paranoia.

However, more people than not have a positive experience with THC.

The tetrahydrocannabinol cannabinoid is the only known cannabinoid within the cannabis plant that is psychoactive. A list of known health conditions that Tetrahydrocannabinol can improve are as follows:

  • Lack of appetite
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Digestive issues
  • Chronic inflammation
  • Chronic pain
  • Cancer-related pain
  • Insomnia
  • Anxiety
  • Muscle spasms
  • Glaucoma
  • Relieves drug-induced withdrawal symptoms

CBD(A)

Bottle of CBD oil with marijuana next to it

Once decarboxylated, CBD, or cannabidiol, is the next most abundant cannabinoid in cannabis. There has been much study done on this cannabinoid due to its similar therapeutic effects to THC.

However, CBD does not cause a psychoactive high. This is because it influences the endocannabinoid receptors without directly influencing the CB1 receptors, which are what cause the psychoactive effects when activated.

Rather, they heavily influence both the natural production of endocannabinoids such as anandamide as well as the opioid and dopamine receptors, which can help with both mood/brain disorders and pain perception.

CBD is now in many cannabis and hemp products. There are oils, concentrates, edibles, capsules, and much more that are now widely available on the market.

However, CBD cannabis and hemp oil tend to be the most popular.

These CBD oils can either be a cannabis-derived extract or a hemp-derived extract. The CBD hemp extract will not get you high. CBD that contains large THC dosage will get a person high, whether mildly or to an extreme extent depending on the dosage strength.

Most CBD oils in the marketplace, in order to be sold in the U.S., need to have at most 0.3% THC. Which is not enough to get a person high.

CBD can be an effective natural treatment option for the following conditions:

CBC(A)

Cannabichromene was discovered 50 years ago and is considered to be one of the top six big cannabinoids because it can potentially aid in the treatment of many different conditions.

CBC binds well with pain receptors such as the vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) and the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1). It also, like CBD, helps the body produce its own endocannabinoids, such as anandamide.

Furthermore, CBC works better alongside other cannabinoids. This is known as the entourage effect. Due to its ability to reduce pain, it works well alongside other cannabinoids that also reduce pain such as CBD or THC.

CBC can also aid depression symptoms as well as act as a natural antibiotic.

THCV(A)

Although tetrahydrocannabivarin is not as well studied, existing evidence suggests much when it comes to its therapeutic effects. The following is what THCV is potentially capable of improving:

  • Reducing appetite for weight loss and support for diabetic patients
  • Panic attacks
  • Anxiety disorder
  • Post-traumatic stress disorder
  • Alzheimer’s disease

CBG(A)

What is CBD written over marijuana leaf

Cannabigerol is a building block, or precursor, to all other cannabinoids.

Although it is present in very minute amounts within the marijuana plant, usually around one percent, it is nonetheless invaluable to the existence of other cannabinoids.

CBG does have therapeutic potential. Studies reveal that it can possibly treat neurological disorders. Additionally, it can potentially treat inflammation, reduce motor skill problems, and improve levels of antioxidants within the body.

CBGV(A)

Cannabigerivarin is the mother of CBD, which in turn is the precursor to all other cannabinoids, like CBG.

A natural inflammation-relieving aid, this precious cannabinoid aids both THC and CBD in enhancing their pain-reducing abilities. By itself, it shows the potential to help in the treatment of arthritis, fibromyalgia, and dry skin conditions.

CBDV(A)

Cannabidivarin is another cannabinoid that has the potential for success in the treatment of neurological disorders, chronic inflammation, and chronic pain. It can help people who have:

  • Epilepsy
  • Crohn’s disease
  • HIV/AIDS
  • Chronic pain and inflammation

CBCV(A)

Cannabichromenvarin is similar to CBC but has a slightly different chemical structure.

Therefore, it is suggested that it can have similar effects as CBC such as being an effective pain reducer, mood lifter, and natural antibiotic. However, since it is a vastly understudied cannabinoid, it is hard to verify this assumption until more research is done.

Do All Cannabinoids Get You High?

As mentioned before, only the THC cannabinoid can get you high. However, more research is being done on THCV. It seems that there is a potential for THCV to get a person high.

The only reason it doesn’t appear to already do so is that there are not enough THCV cannabinoids present in marijuana to cause this effect.

THCV compounds are not nearly as abundant as some of the other cannabinoids, such as CBD and THC.

The Benefits Of Cannabinoids

There are many great health benefits that cannabinoids offer the body. Below are three big benefits with clinical trials and studies as proof:

Help With Chronic Pain

Cannabinoids are great for chronic pain stemming from an existing health condition.

There has been much study done on the relationship between the improvement of pain and consuming cannabinoids, particularly CBD and THC.

A 2008 article published by the Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management reviewed several studies that all concluded the great promise prescription synthetic cannabinoids had in improving pain symptoms in people with cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, and neuropathic pain stemming from multiple sclerosis.

Relieve Anxiety

one line drawing of person dealing with anxiety

Cannabinoids, particularly CBD, can potentially treat different types of anxiety.

Two human studies, one studying CBD’s effects on social anxiety and the other CBD’s effects on public speaking-related anxiety, revealed an improvement in both groups.

A 2015 article published by Neuropeutics revealed that CBD, when administered “acutely” has great promise in treating the following anxiety disorders:

  • Panic disorder
  • Social anxiety
  • Generalized anxiety disorder
  • Post-traumatic stress disorder
  • Obsessive-compulsive disorder

Improve Sleep

Many studies cannabinoids show great promise in treating sleep issues. While CBD seems to treat insomnia effectively, A mix of cannabinoids seems to significantly improve sleep apnea.

A 2013 study done by the University of Sao Paulo revealed that strong and consistent doses of CBD increased the total sleep time of the patients under study.

Four years later, a 2017 article published by the Oxford University Press discusses how a clinical trial testing Dronabinol, a synthetic cannabinoid medication, on sleep apnea patients helped them:

  1. Improved their sleep
  2. Improved their daytime energy levels

Additionally, the stronger the dose, the better the results.

The Advantages Of Knowing Your List Of Cannabinoids

Certain cannabinoids treat certain bodily symptoms.

Additionally, some are naturally more abundant in marijuana or hemp plants than others and therefore, have the capacity to treat a certain condition more acutely.

Also, some have better effects when used in conjunction with other cannabinoids rather than being used alone.

Therefore, it is a good idea to be educated on the different cannabinoids and their functions in the body. In this way, you can know how to best treat your particular health ailment.

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